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Sejak zaman paleolitikum hingga sekarang, bumi masih setia mendampingi kita. Namun reaksi alam dan campur tangan hitam manusia telah merusaknya! Tak ada kata terlambat. LET'S KEEP OUR EARTH!

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Gletser Papua Terancam Hilang dalam 20 Tahun

Kondisi gletser di Puncak Jaya diambil dari Citra Landsath. Foto di ujung kiri merupakan kondisi di tahun 1990 yang memperlihatkan lima gletser. Seiring foto yang berderet ke kanan, jumlah itu makin menyusut hingga foto di ujung kanan pada tahun 2010. Hanya tiga gletser dengan kondisi mengenaskan yang tersisa. (Warsono/NGI)

KOMPAS.com - Pemanasan global mulai memperlihatkan dampaknya pada penghuni Bumi. Bukti keberadaannya kali ini dirasakan oleh masyarakat Indonesia dengan foto dari satelit NASA mengenai kondisi es di Puncak Jaya, Papua.

Imaji satelit yang dirilis pekan lalu oleh NASA menunjukkan hilangnya gletser di Puncak Jaya yang merupakan bagian dari Barisan Sudirman. Puncak Jaya memiliki nama lain Carstenz Pyramid, warga lokal menyebutnya Ndugu-Ndugu.

Foto diambil menggunakan Thematic Mapper (TM) di Landsat 4 dan 5. Di ketinggian 4.884 meter, foto satelit NASA membandingkan kondisi gletser di tahun 1989 dan 2009. Tahun 1989, ada lima gletser di Puncak Jaya. Namun, 20 tahun kemudian, tepatnya pada 2009, dua dari lima gletser itu hilang sama sekali. Sedangkan sisa tiga gletser lainnya berkurang secara drastis.

Menurut Ardheshir Yaftebbi, salah satu pendaki dalam ekspedisi 7 Summits yang mencapai puncak Carstenz Pyramid -puncak tertinggi di komplek Pegunungan Jayawijaya- pada April 2010, ia dan timnya menjadi saksi penyusutan es.

"Saat itu kita melihat salju (di sekitar Carstenz Pyramid) hanya tinggal dua kilometer persegi. Di tahun 1930, salju itu mencapai 20 kilometer persegi," kata Ardhesir saat berbincang dengan National Geographic Indonesia, Rabu (5/9).

Ditambahkannya hal ini sangat menyedihkan karena Puncak Jaya merupakan satu-satunya lokasi di Indonesia yang memiliki es. "Jayawijaya disebut sebagai es abadi, tapi ternyata diprediksi tidak akan ada salju lagi pada lima hingga sepuluh tahun mendatang," ujar Ardeshir yang juga Ketua Tim Ekspedisi 7 Summits yang dimulai tahun 2010 dan berakhir pada Juni 2012.

Carstenz Pyramid masuk sebagai tujuh puncak tertinggi di dunia. Bersama dengan Gunung Kilimanjaro (Tanzania, Afrika), Elbrus (Eropa), Aconcagua (Amerika Selatan), Denali (Amerika Utara), Vinson Massif (Antartika), dan Everest (Nepal, Asia).

Dengan kondisi suhu Bumi saat ini, NASA memprediksi seluruh gletser di Papua akan musnah pada 20 mendatang. Para peneliti juga sudah menyebutkan, hal ini terjadi karena berbagai faktor. Seperti perubahan suhu, kelembapan, hujan, dan pergerakan awan. Kondisi iklim dan penggundulan hutan juga turut berpartisipasi.

"Ini bukan peringatan pertama dan bukan hanya terjadi di negara kita. Es di Antartika juga mencair dan berada pada titik terendah," kata Direktur Program Iklim dan Energi WWF Nyoman Iswarayoga.

Untuk mencegah perubahan iklim lebih lanjut bisa dilakukan beberapa hal, baik secara kolektif maupun individu. Kolektif bisa berwujud gerakan masyarakat yang diwadahi pemerintah. Sedangkan gerakan individu dimulai dengan perubahan gaya hidup yang lebih "hijau." (Zika Zakiya/National Geographic Indonesia).

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Tiga Primata Indonesia Masuk Kategori Paling Terancam Punah




NEW DELHI, KOMPAS.com — Tiga spesies primata dari Indonesia, yaitu tarsius gunung (Tarsius pumilus), kukang jawa (Nycticebus javanicus), dan monyet simakobu atau biasa disebut monyet ekor babi (Nasalis concolor), masuk dalam daftar "25 Primata Paling Terancam Punah 2012-2014."

Daftar ini dikeluarkan oleh koalisi grup konservasi dalam Convention on Biological Diversity PBB di Hyderabad, India, Senin (15/10/2012). Asal primata yang paling mencolok berasal dari tiga negara, termasuk Indonesia, yang memiliki primata terancam punah lebih dari dua spesies. 

Ketiga negara itu yakni Madagaskar (enam spesies), Vietnam (lima spesies), dan Indonesia (tiga spesies). Dikatakan para peneliti yang terlibat dalam penyusunan daftar tersebut, kebanyakan spesies monyet di Asia terancam karena banyak hal.

Bukan hanya karena perburuan dan kehilangan habitat, melainkan juga perburuan anggota tubuh untuk memuaskan permintaan (pasar) masyarakat Asia untuk masakan eksotis, obat-obatan, dan zat perangsang.

Tarsius gunung (Tarsius pumilus) dari Sulawesi diperkirakan punah sejak tahun 2000. "Hanya ada empat individual yang pernah tercatat oleh peneliti," ujar Christoph Schwitzer, Kepala Penelitian dari Bristol Conservation and Science Foundation (BCSF).

Kukang jawa (Nycticebus javanicus) masuk kategori terancam punah karena sering diburu untuk peliharaan. Spesies ini juga pernah masuk dalam daftar spesies terancam punah pada tahun 2008-2010.

Lain lagi dengan monyet simakobu atau biasa disebut monyet ekor babi (Nasalis concolor). Sama seperti primata lain, ancaman utama untuk monyet simakobu adalah kehilangan habitat akibat pembukaan lahan di hutan dan perburuan untuk dijadikan peliharaan.

"Primata adalah saudara terdekat kita dan kemungkinan spesies terbaik untuk hutan hujan kita. Penting juga dicatat jika primata adalah spesies kunci dari rumah hutan tropis," kata Russell Mittermeier, President of Conservation International.

Spesies teratas dalam daftar "25 Primata Paling Terancam Punah 2012-2014" adalah lemur yang berasal dari Madagaskar.

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Perubahan Iklim Ancam 100 Juta Nyawa Manusia



LONDON, KOMPAS.com - Lebih dari 100 juta orang akan mati dan pertumbuhan ekonomi global akan turun sebesar 3,2 persen dari total Produk Domestik Bruto (PDB) pada tahun 2030 jika dunia gagal mengatasi masalah perubahan iklim.

Seiring suhu rata-rata global meningkat akibat emisi gas rumah kaca, serangkaian dampak bisa dirasakan planet Bumi antara lain mencairnya es, cuaca ekstrim, kekeringan, dan naiknya permukaan air laut. Semua hal tersebut mengancam populasi dan kesejahteraan hidup manusia, kata organisasi kemanusiaan DARA dalam sebuah laporannya.

Berdasarkan laporan, lima juta kematian yang terjadi setiap tahunnya akibat polusi udara, kelaparan, dan penyakit akibat perubahan iklim serta pemanfaatan karbon secara intensif. Total kematian kemungkinan akan meningkat menjadi enam juta per tahun pada tahun 2030, jika pola penggunaan bahan bakar fosil terus menerus dilakukaan saat ini.

Lebih dari 90 persen kematian akan terjadi di negara berkembang. DARA membuat laporan ini berdasarkan penghintungan dampak perubahan iklim terhadap manusia dan perekonomian pada 184 negara pada tahun 2010 dan 2030. Mereka ditugaskan oleh Climate Vulnerable Forum yang beranggotakan 20 negara berkembang yang terancam oleh perubahan iklim.

"Krisis gabungan iklim dan karbon diperkirakan mengancam 100 juta jiwa antara saat ini sampai dengan akhir dekade berikutnya," demikian dinyatakan dalam laporan tersebut.

Dikatakan bahwa dampak perubahan iklim telah menurunkan produksi global sebesar 1,6 persen dari PDB dunia atau sekitar 1,2 triliun US dollar per tahun. Kerugian tersebut bisa naik dua kali lipat dari PDB global pada tahun 2030, jika suhu global dibiarkan naik melebihi 10 persen dari sebelum tahun 2010.

Diperkirakan biaya untuk mengubah dunia menjadi berekonomi rendah karbon sekitar 0,5 persen dari total GDP dekade ini. Ekonom asal Inggris, Nicholas Stern mengatakan, investasi hingga 2 persen dari PDB global diperlukan untuk membatasi, mencegah dan beradaptasi dengan perubahan iklim.

Laporannya mengenai ekonomi perubahan iklim tahun 2006 menyatakan bahwa kenaikan suhu rata-rata global antara 2-3 derajat celcius dalam 50 tahun ke depan akan mengurangi konsumsi global per kapita hingga 20 persen.

Saat ini suhu telah meningkat 0,8 derajat Celcius di atas temperatur masa pra-industri. Hampir 200 negara sepakat pada tahun 2010 untuk membatasi kenaikan suhu rata-rata global di bawah 2 derajat Celcius sehingga dampak berbahaya dari perubahan iklim bisa dihindari.

Para pakar iklim memperingatkan bahwa kemungkinan untuk membatasi kenaikan hingga dibawah 2 derajat celcius semakin kecil karena emisi gas rumah kaca global meningkat akibat penggunaan bahan bakar fosil.

Negara-negara miskin di dunia adalah yang paling rentan karena mereka menghadapi peningkatan resiko kekeringan, kekurangan air, kemiskinan dan penyakit. Rata-rata mereka bisa mengalami kerugian 11 persen dari PDB pada 2030 akibat perubahan iklim, kata DARA.

"Satu derajat Celcius kenaikan suhu setara dengan 10 persen penurunan produktivitas dalam pertanian. Bagi kami, itu berarti kehilangan sekitar 4 juta metrik ton biji-bijian senilai 2,5 milliar dollar. Jumlah tersebut adalah sekitar 2 persen dari PDB kita," kata Perdana Menteri Bangladesh, Sheikh Hasina dalam menanggapi laporan tersebut.

"Ditambah kerusakan pada properti dan kerugian lainnya, kita dihadapkan pada kerugian total sekitar 3-4 persen dari PDB" tambahnya.

Bahkan negara-negara yang besar juga akan terkena dampaknya. Amerika Serikat dan China bisa mengalami penurunan 2,1 dari PDB masing-masing pada tahun 2030, sementara India bisa mengalami kerugian lebih dari 5 persen.

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Mangrove, Penyerap Karbon efektif


PURWOKERTO, KOMPAS.com - Hutan mangrove diproyeksikan menjadi andalan program pengurangan emisi karbon di Indonesia. Kendati luasnya hanya 2,5 persen kawasan hutan tropis kita, kerusakan ekosistem ini berdampak jauh lebih besar ketimbang kerusakan hutan konvensional.

Hal ini mengemuka dalam seminar internasional mangrove ”Conservation & Community Empowerment” yang diselenggarakan Universitas Jenderal Soedirman (Unsoed), Purwokerto, Jumat-Sabtu (6-7/10/2012). Seminar menghadirkan Ketua Satuan Tugas REDD+ Kuntoro Mangkusubroto; Guru Besar Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Jerman, Michael Muhlenberg; Chan Hung Tuck dari International Society for Mangrove Ecosystem; dan Sanjay Swarup dari NUS Environmental Research Institute, Singapura.

Berdasarkan data terbaru Badan Informasi Geospasial, luas hutan mangrove di Indonesia hanya 3,2 juta hektar (ha). Jumlah itu 22 persen dari seluruh ekosistem sejenis di dunia, lebih sempit daripada luas hutan tropis kita sekitar 100 juta ha.

Muhlenberg, mengutip penelitian Ocean and Coastal Policy Program Duke University menyebutkan, menghancurkan 1 ha hutan mangrove, emisinya setara dengan menebang 3-5 ha hutan tropis. Penelitian yang dipublikasikan di jurnal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences menyebutkan, upaya menghindari emisi karbon dengan menjaga kelestarian hutan mangrove dilakukan dengan biaya 4-10 dollar AS per ton CO2. Pada hutan tropis lain mencapai 10-20 dollar AS per ton CO2.

Chan Hung Tuck mengatakan, hutan mangrove yang dikategorikan ekosistem lahan basah mampu menyimpan 800-1.200 ton CO2 per ha. Pelepasan emisi ke udara pada hutan mangrove lebih kecil daripada hutan di daratan. Pembusukan serasah tanaman akuatik tidak melepaskan karbon ke udara. Tanaman hutan tropis yang mati melepas 50 persen karbon.

Kuntoro mengakui, pemerintah baru serius memperhatikan mangrove dalam skema REDD+ setelah beberapa tahun terakhir fokus pada hutan konvensional. Dia mendorong pemerintah daerah memiliki peraturan khusus terkait pelestarian mangrove.

Rektor Unsoed Edy Yuwono mengatakan, dampak hilangnya mangrove mulai dirasakan masyarakat pesisir. Rusaknya mangrove di kawasan Laguna Segara Anakan menyebabkan tangkapan ikan, kepiting, serta kerang di Cilacap berkurang.

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September 2012 Tercatat sebagai Bulan Terpanas


WASHINGTON, KOMPAS.com - September 2012 tercatat sebagai bulan terpanas. Hasil pengukuran National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) menyatakan bahwa suhu rata-rata global pada bulan tersebut adalah 60,2 derajat Fahrenheit atau 15,67 derajat Celsius.

Satu hal menarik, ini ketiga kalinya sejak tahun 2000 bulan September memecahkan rekor. Sebelumnya, bulan terpanas juga terjadi pada September 2003 dan 2005. NOAA menyatakan, rekor suhu terpanas pun pernah terjadi pada September tahun 1880.

Kepala bagian pemantauan iklim dari NOAA, Deke Arndt, mengatakan bahwa sangat berharga untuk menyelidiki mengapa September identik dengan rekor suhu terpanas. Penelitian diharapkan bisa mengungkap faktor penyebabnya.

Andrew Weaver, pakar iklim dari University of California mengatakan, kemungkinan penyebab September selalu menjadi bulan terpanas adalah pemanjangan musim panas di belahan utara Bumi sebagai akibat dari ulah manusia serta terus menipisnya es di laut Arktik yang membantu mendinginkan Bumi.

Di belahan bumi utara, faktor yang menyebabkan lamanya musim panas kemungkinan adalah La Nina, kebalikan dari El Nino yang menyebabkan suhu menurun. Kemungkinan penyebab lain adalah pemanasan di Arktik yang berdampak pada rekor pencairan es tertinggi beberapa waktu lalu. 

September Ceria berduka
Weaver meyakini, suhu terpanas diakibatkan oleh ulah manusia. Secara umum, bulan September 2012 menjadi bulan terpanas ke 16 sejak tahun 2000. Di ekstrem lain, rekor bulan terdingin pernah terjadi pada Desember 1916.

Weaver seperti dikutip AP, Senin (15/10/2012), mengatakan, "Apa yang terlihat kali ini persis seperti apa yang diprediksikan oleh para pakar iklim sekitar 20-30 tahun yang lalu." 

Meski bulan lalu tercatat sebagai yang terpanas, suhu di Amerika Serikat sendiri tercatat hanya ke-23 terpanas. 

Menanggapi laporan NOAA, beberapa kalangan yang skeptis pada pemanasan global mengatakan bahwa berdasarkan laporan koran di Inggris, pemanasan sudah tidak terjadi sejak 2007. Namun, badan meteorologi dan klimatologi Inggris serta Weaver menyatakan bahwa laporan tersebut misleading.

"Saya tak tahu data apa yang mereka pakai. Tahun 2010 adalah tahun terpanas dan 2005 adalah kedua terpanas," ungkap Weaver. Di samping itu, pengukuran suhu menunjukkan bahwa top 10 suhu terpanas memang terjadi setelah tahun 1997.

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Feses Teri Melawan Perubahan Iklim


NEW JERSEY, KOMPAS.com - Ikan teri memang berukuran kecil. Namun, studi membuktikan bahwa ikan ini turut berperan melawan perubahan iklim. Fese ikan teri membantu menyimpan karbon.

Grace Saba dari Rutgers University di New Jersey dan Deborah Steinberg dari Virginia Institute of Marine Science, berdasarkan studinya menuturkan, teri memakan ganggang. Feses sisa pencernaan mendendap dengan cepat di lautan dan membawa karbon.

"Pelet feses dari permukaan bisa bergerak mengendap ke bawah dengan kecepatan hingga 1600 kaki (487 meter) dalam waktu kurang dari sehari selama studi," kata Saba.

Berdasarkan studi, seperti diberitakan Discovery, Jumat (12/10/2012), setiap feses menyimpan karbon hingga 22 mikrogram.

"Dua puluh mikrogram mungkin tak terlihat banyak. Tapi jika Anda mengalikannya dengan jumlah ikan dan feses yang mungkin ada di wilayah kaya nutrisi, jumlahnya akan cukup besar," papar Steinberg. 

Dan memang, sebanyak 251 miligram feses per meter persegi mengendap setiap harinya.

"Penemuan kami menunjukkan bahwa dalam kondisi tertentu,feses ikan dapat mengirim material dari permukaan ke kedalaman, dan melakukannya dengan cepat," ungkap Saba. 

Ikan teri bukan satu-satunya jenis ikan yang membantu melawan perubahan iklim. Dalam spektrum ukuran yang berbeda, paus sperma juga melakukannya. 

Kotoran paus memberi makan flora mikro di permukaan, fitoplankton. Fitoplankton yang mati akan mengendap ke dasar lautan membawa serta karbon dioksida yang diserapnya. Jumlah karbon diokdida yang diserap lewat proses ini bisa mencapai 2 juta ton per tahun. 

Diketahui, konsentrasi karbon dioksida yang meningkat di atmosfer berpengaruh pada perubahan iklim. Dengan banyaknya karbon dioksida yang diserap, perubahan iklim bisa dilawan.

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Recycle : Menyulap botol menjadi rumah?


Sebenarnya banyak manfaat yang bisa digunakan dari botol minuman bekas. Bila Anda kreatif, botol-botol itu bisa 'disulap' menjadi sesuatu yang berguna di kehidupan.

Di beberapa negara, demi mengurangi sampah, botol-botol bekas disusun menjadi tempat tinggal. Kreatif. Berikut beberapa rumah botol itu :

Di Argentina.
Seorang pensiunan upholsterer (tukang pelapis perabot rumah tangga), John Milkovisch, menghiasi rumahnya dari bahan daur ulang. Percaya atau tidak, sekitar 50.000 kaleng bir digunakan membangun "Beer Can House" di dinding, ayunan depan dan hampir di mana-mana.

Masih di Argentina, juga terdapat rumah botol lain. Pemiliknya Alfredo Santa Cruz. Dia mendirikan rumah dari botol-botol bekas di Puerto Iguazu karena tidak mau sampah itu merusak lingkungan.

Struktur rumah karya Alfredo bukan hanya menggunakan botol bekas. Tapi juga dibangun dari bahan plastik bekas, kaleng aluminium, kotak tetra pak, dan bahan-bahan yang bisa di daur ulang lainnya.

Di Serbia
Tomislav Radovanovic, profesor matematika Serbia dari pusat kota Kragujevac, telah menciptakan rumah seluas 60 meter persegi. Dia bekerja selama lima tahun dengan memanfaatkan botol plastik sebagai mayoritas dalam konstruksi. Hanya fondasi dari beton
 


Di Bolivia
Beberapa aktivis lingkungan muda di Bolivia mengumpulkan sekitar 25.000 botol plastik dan membangun rumah botol itu dalam waktu enam bulan. 

Cara yang dia pakai dalam membangun rumah adalah dengan memasukan pasir di botol. Lalu diperkuat dengan baja dan semen, sehingga menciptakan dinding kuat.

Rumah botol itu terletak di Warnes, di provinsi timur Santa Cruz.

Di Nigeria
LSM Asosiasi Pembangunan untuk Energi Terbarukan (DARE) yang berbasis di kota Kaduna, Nigeria, menawarkan proyek pembangunan rumah menggunakan botol-botol plastik bekas ini.

DARE mengklaim proyek ini sebagai salah satu strategi paling tepat untuk menata lingkungan. Sekaligus sebagai solusi mengurangi minimnya perumahan bagi warga Nigeria, negeri terpadat di Afrika. (Berbagai sumber)

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10 Coldest Place in the world


This post is about the coldest places in the world. Places from different localities which have coldest climatic conditions with temperature which may be freezing even at its maximum have been enlisted in this post. Although there may be other places which are colder as well but only the top 10 coldest places in the world have been put in the list having the temperature description of two different places from the same countries. That means, five countries possess two coldest places each.
coldest places 10 Coldest Places In The World


Following are the coldest places enlisted with the temperatures in Fahrenheit as well as Celsius below:


10). Rogers Pass, Montana-US:

This is the tenth coldest place in the world which is continentally divided in Northern side of Montana located in United States of America. This is favorite place of flying birds going towards East. Swans, Canadian geese, golden eagles, bald eagles, snow geese and other type of winter animals are often seen at this Pass. The coldest month of this place is March and April. The extreme coldest Celsius temperature of -56.5C was recorded at this Pass and the Fahrenheit temperature was -69.7F.

09). Fort Selkirk, Yukon-Canada:

This place is located in the region of Yukon situated in the country of Canada. Fort Selkirk is the ninth ranking coldest place among the coldest places in the World. This town was almost deserted because of the extreme cold climatic conditions in 1950s. But now, it has been restored somehow due to certain suitable arrangements made at this place. No matter, that it can only be reached by boat or by air. The coldest month of Fort Selkirk is January. The extreme coldest Celsius temperature was recorded as -58.9C and Fahrenheit temperature was -74F.

08). Prospect Creek, Alaska- USA:

This place experiences a sub-arctic type of climatic condition which means that the season at this place is a long-term winter season and through the year there is only a shorter time for the mild summers. Prospect Alaska was somehow expanded because of the construction of trans-Alaska. But now when the weather conditions are even severe, this place has become much smaller than before. The coldest month of this place is February. The extreme coldest temperature in Celsius was recorded as -62Cand the Fahrenheit temperature as -79.6F.

07). Snag, Yukon-Canada:

Snag is another coldest place in Yukon situated in Canada likewise Fort Selkirk ranking on sixth number. It is a small village on a small dry and cold weathered side-road turned to Alaska Highway. It is situated in bowl-shaped valley of White River in Yukon of Canada. The sky is full of fog at this place and the weather is very chill and freezing. Frequent cold wind flows continuously with great frost. The coldest month of this place is January. The extreme coldest temperature in Fahrenheit was recorded as -81.4F and in Celsius as -65C.

06). Eismitte-Greenland:

This is the sixth numbered coldest place in the world situated in Greenland. In English, Eismitte is also called as Mid-Ice. It was a site in the interior Arctic side of Greenland. In German, Eismitte means Ice-Center. Literally, this place is meant to be the perfect place delivering a perception of ice around everywhere at this place, Eismitte. The coldest month is February of this place. The coldest extreme temperature recorded in Fahrenheit was -84.8F and -64.9C in Celsius.

05). North Ice-Greenland:

This place comes on the fifth number among the top coldest areas in the world. This place is the name of a research station which was once occupied and expanded indeed by the British North Greenland Expedition between the times 1952 to 1954. This research center was situated on the inland ice of this Northern place. The coldest month this place experiences is the month of February. The extreme coldest temperature in Fahrenheit is -86.8F and in Celsius is -66C.

04). Verkhoyansk-Russia:

This coldest place is a small town in Sakha Republic situated in Russia. It is a town which experiences great differences between the extreme summer season and the peak of winter season. The temperature changes with the alternation of the seasons with the passage of time. However, it is one the coldest place in the winter season and the winter time is more than the summer time in Verkhoyansk. The coldest period of this place is the month of July. The extreme cold temperature in Fahrenheit is -89.8F and in Celsius is -67.7C.

03). Oymyakon-Russia:

It is a valley in the Khrabet Mountains and a village in Sakha Republic of Russia. This is another but colder area of Russia again than Verkhyansk. This place again experiences extreme subarctic climate with long lasting winters for a longer period of time. The coldest month of this Russia’s place is the month of February. The extreme coldest temperature in Fahrenheit is -96F and -71.1C in Celsius.

02). Plateau Station-Antarctica:

This is the second ranking place among the coldest places. This is a mothballed American Research and theatrical production station on the Antarctic Plateau. The station was closed in 1969 and the coldest month at this place is the month of July. The extreme coldest temperature in Fahrenheit recorded was -119.2F and in Celsius was -84C.

01). Vostok-Antarctica:

This is the top coldest place among the other entire coldest place in the world situated in Antarctica. This is an Antarctic Russian Station for the research. This pole of cold is on the Southern side of Russia experiencing the coldest temperature ever. This place has the lowest authentication for the normal natural measured temperature of the atmosphere on the Earth. The coldest month is the month of August in Vostok. The extreme coldest temperature recorded at this place in Fahrenheit is -128.6F and -89.2C in Celsius.

source : http://www.tiptoptens.com/2011/04/30/10-coldest-places-in-the-world/
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10 Cleanest Places on Earth


An old adage says that Cleanliness is next to Godliness. Indeed it is true that whenever you are in a clean and tidy place, you feel an inner peace and serenity. It could be our home and other specific locations where we feel we are safe where it could be our refuge from the cares and worries of the world.  Hence, this is also a sign of development and higher state of human civilization that signifies growth and real stability. On this list, you could find the most sought paradise because of the highest maintenance of cleanliness and felicity, Below are the Cleanest Places on Earth


10. Oslo, Norway
10. Oslo Norway e1331110010344 10 Cleanest Places on Earth
Oslo is considered to be the largest city found in Norway that also serves as the capital city of the country. It is the central place for shipping, banking, trade, and other industries. It has the most extensive transport system in Norway. It has good air quality, specifically when summer season comes in. It is known for its massive waterfalls, mountains, and its reputation of being one of the safest places in the world.


9. Kobe, Japan
9. Kobe Japan e1331110044732 10 Cleanest Places on Earth
When it comes to cosmopolitan lifestyle, Kobe is the best city that you can find in Japan. This is the reason why it continuously attracts visitors from other nations and even within the locality. Some of the things that made it become comparatively distinct are with cleanliness through separate roadway drainage that avoids the release of untreated sewage into rivers and other waterways, which is one of the common issues in some countries and the picturesque seas and mountains. It is the 6thlargest city in Japan.


8Copenhagen, Denmark
8. Copenhagen Denmark e1331110073437 10 Cleanest Places on Earth
It is the cleanest city in Europe, which is actually the result of the surveys conducted proactively among the travelers and visitors in various European countries. Hence, it is also the greenest place in the world. It is a bike and walk-friendly city found in Denmark. In fact, they embrace clean incinerators wherein they convert trash into energy.


7. Adelaide, Australia
7. Adelaide Australia e1331110107509 10 Cleanest Places on Earth
It is one of the key cities and most populous place in Australia. Nevertheless, some of the comments and feedback that most of the travelers give has something to do with its cleanliness and uncluttered environment. Also, it is the most affordable city where an individual can settle into, based on transportation and accommodations drafted in the whole country of Australia.


6. Minneapolis, United States
6. Minneapolis United States e1331110133631 10 Cleanest Places on Earth
This is not just part of the cleanest places in the world but it is cited as the second cleanest and smartest city in America. The criteria for achieving this recognition are because of the major improvements done in the district, as this is the only city that accepts electronic waste for free. According to the Travel & Leisure, it is a well-kept and a smart looking city.


5. Wellington, New Zealand
5. Wellington New Zealand e1331110163577 10 Cleanest Places on Earth
It is recognized as the greenest and cleanest city in New Zealand. Some of the things that made this place part of this list are considerably based on the quality of life that people maintain, open space, recycling processes that they are doing, which makes this place free from pollution.


4. Helsinki, Finland
4. Helsinki Finland e1331110187117 10 Cleanest Places on Earth
Some of the people who have never been in Finland find this country mysterious. In fact, majority of those people who have been to Finland, specifically to Helsinki, found this place very interesting. It has the cleanest public restroom facilities whether you are in their shopping centers, department stores, and other areas. They have the cleanest transportation facilities too even if you are riding on the second class type of trains.

3. Ottawa, Canada
3. Ottawa Canada e1331110216685 10 Cleanest Places on Earth
When it comes to ambiance, Ottawa is one of the comfortable and coolest places in the world as to its natural purity aside from humid continental climate that the place has. It is also the capital city of Canada. It is surrounded by forests, parklands, and wetlands.

2. Honolulu, Hawaii
2. Honolulu Hawaii e1331110241984 10 Cleanest Places on Earth
It has the cleanest air in America based on the air report conducted and released. It got an A mark for its Ozone or smog rating, along with the particle pollution or soot. This is in support and implementation of the Clean Air Act that people observe there.


1. Calgary, Canada
1. Calgary Canada e1331110274489 10 Cleanest Places on Earth
It is consistently ranked and included on the yearly top 10 list of the cleanest places on earth. This has been boosted because of the implementation and development of sanitation systems, two to three years ago with their Too Good to Waste Program. Moreover, they are consistent with their efforts in reducing demolition and construction waste, through trainings and financial incentive programs.
 source : 
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10 best countries to live a good life in 2012


Those who are planning to settle in other countries permanently may check this list so they would know the edge of migrating to live in one of these countries for good. There could be various personal reasons why they would choose to leave everything behind where one of which is economic reasons that would allow them better job opportunities and better lives. These countries offer major breaks that would improve their lives and would give them new life and hope, despite of the calamities that the world is facing each year. They are not just suggestions but they are recommended places where one could settle for good. This list is based on comfort that an individual can attain wherein he or she would achieve balance in life and work. Below is the list of 10 best countries to live a good life in 2012

10. France
10. France e1327419255436 Top 10 Best Countries to Live in 2012
Based on the ratio for working hours for all employees, it only garnered 9% compared to other countries that they have to work overtime than the regular 8 hours, just to be able to bring or receive enough remuneration that would be sufficient for a week’s or month’s expense. Women and children have 16.06 hours that had been spent for personal care, leisure, and 66% of women who are employed have children. The child poverty concern is only 8% and this ratio makes it healthier for individuals to live in.


9. Portugal
9. Portugal e1327419278660 Top 10 Best Countries to Live in 2012
Yes, it is true that it is one of the countries that have lowest child ratio. In fact, majority of families have one child, which can be found out of 10 49 year-old women. Although this ratio affects the stability of the country, however, the main reason is the working long hours of the employees, which is current recorded at 6%, which suggests that an individual does not need to double their effort just to meet their needs. The 65% is allocated for women who are working where they have children and 15.27% is high for leisure.

8. Germany
8. Germany e1327419302573 Top 10 Best Countries to Live in 2012
It is also one of the major three countries that have fewer babies wherein it maintains to have a 5% ratio of employees that work long hours, which is one of the good factors, and indicators that an immigrant would enjoy. It has 16.14 total hours spent for personal care and leisure while 66% employment rate for those women who have children.

7. Sweden
7. Sweden e1327419325915 Top 10 Best Countries to Live in 2012
It has a good ratio recorded because according to statistics, there is 65% time equal to 15.5 hours that people had to spend on personal stuff such as sleeping and eating, which also includes leisure time to socialize, attend to their hobbies, and be with family and friends. It influences the hours of work in this country. In fact, there is only 1% among the employment population that had worked longer hours, which is a good indicator that quality of living and compensation in this country is high, wherein 76% of women are working although they have kids already.

6. Switzerland
6. Switzerland e1327419347804 Top 10 Best Countries to Live in 2012
It could have had 6% long hours of work for all employed individuals but they have recorded 1640 hours worked in a year, which is one of lowest, recorded in OECD. There are 79% of women who are working while doing their maternal responsibilities to their children. Hence, 15.74 hours were spent for leisure and personal care.

5. Belgium
5. Belgium e1327419416711 Top 10 Best Countries to Live in 2012
Another lowest working hour recorded in OECD, which is 1550 hours for its annual report, which is 4%. Hence, it garnered 63% employment rate for women who have children and had 16.61 hours spent for personal matters and free time.

4. Finland
4. Finland e1327419442654 Top 10 Best Countries to Live in 2012
This is one of the countries that assured and ensured working mothers, that child welfare could be given through childcare places, which have been established that would continue to nurture children. It is the reason that the mother employment rate here is up by 76% while 4% is the total long working hours and has maintained 15.95 hours for leisure time and personal stuff.

3. Netherlands
3. Netherlands e1327419467100 Top 10 Best Countries to Live in 2012
It has the lowest working rate among all other countries; because of the total working hours recorded are only 1378 annually. It has increased employment opportunities for women that made it 76% ratio for women who have children. Hence, majority of this ratio is part-time employment, while 16.06 hours had been spent with family, children, and important endeavors during free time. It has 1% record for long hours worked.

2. Norway
2. Norway e1327419493303 Top 10 Best Countries to Live in 2012
It is still one of the choices of individuals where they can live with 1407 total hours worked in a year with 3% ratio of long hours worked, 79% is attributed to women’s employment to those who have maternal responsibilities and yet had spent 16.05 hours for leisure and personal endeavors.

1. Denmark
1. Denmark e1327419534385 Top 10 Best Countries to Live in 2012
It has been placed as the number one country where an individual can live permanently because of the lowest child-poverty rate in the world due to an active implementation of child services. It has 2% long working hours, 78% for working mothers, and 16.31 for time spent for personal and free time.
You might ask why United States, Canada, and even Australia are not part of the list of best countries to live. They are part of the list, but it has ranked #23, 14, and higher than #23. The rules in migrating and settling in those countries become stiffer and rigid, specifically in Canada as to requirements for eligibility for citizenship.
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